Skip the Hay

Graze More, Feed Less

After the first killing frost, usually around mid-November, Tim Tucker starts drilling in ryegrass and clover on his permanent pastures. (DTN/Progressive Farmer photo by Becky Mills)

Every day without hay is a good day for Tim Tucker. "It is the most expensive feed we use," he notes, valuing the commodity at around $40 per roll.

The Uriah, Alabama, producer either has hay custom harvested from surplus, over-seeded ryegrass pastures, bahiagrass, bermudagrass and crabgrass fields, or he buys peanut hay. Any way he gets it, hay adds up to an expense he can't afford to waste. Given the size of his cattle business, though, it's also a necessity.

Most years Tucker manages to get by on around 1,200 rolls. That's for 200 brood cows and 500 to 700 head of stockers—all with just 450 acres of permanent pasture. He adds to that by getting double or even triple use of 550 to 600 acres of crop land.


Tucker likes to lay a foundation for his stocker feeding program with kale and radish seed planted on a prepared seedbed. He does this any time after the first of August, preferably after a good rain.

"We can graze it lightly in four weeks," he says. "We started using brassicas 15 years ago. They'll come up, and you can graze them before anything else. I don't think people realize the potential with no more water than they have to have."

Although he doesn't plant peanuts every year, he'll even broadcasts brassica seed in front of his peanut picker in October, saying cattle can graze that in six weeks. "That's planting it late, but we use it to fill in the gaps when we don't have anything else growing."

Even better, brassicas are high quality, at 15% to 20% crude protein and 65% to 80% digestibility. Tucker says that's just right for the stockers he brings in, which are generally under 300 pounds and mismanaged.

Because of that high level of nutritional quality, University of Georgia extension beef specialist Jennifer Tucker says, "We often refer to brassicas as the ryegrass of the fall, since annual ryegrass usually isn't ready until later."


After brassicas are planted, Tucker puts in a mix of black oats, triticale, ryegrass and more brassicas.

"My wife says I get ill if I don't get it planted by Sept. 15," he laughs. "I'm looking for early grazing, and I may plant 150 pounds of seed an acre total."

With a timely rain, he'll have grazing in six to eight weeks, especially good for the lightest weight stockers.

Come October, he puts the local ag pilot to work flying a mix of ryegrass, clover and kale on his almost ready to harvest cotton. If he has a bad wild turnip problem on those fields, he'll leave out the clover and kale so he can spray for weeds.

As soon as the picker leaves the field, he starts turning in stockers to glean the stalks and stomp the seeds into the ground. He typically has about 500 acres in cotton.

"When I've got cotton stalks, I don't have to put out hay," he says.

Where the picker and boll buggy run over the emerging seed, the loss is minimal. "It will come back," Tucker says, "The worst places are where we build modules." In those bare spots, he'll often hand-spread ryegrass and clover seed.


After a killing frost, which is usually around Nov. 15, Tucker starts drilling ryegrass and clover in his 450 acres of permanent pasture.

"After Christmas, we'll put it in any way we want to, we might even scatter it with chicken litter or fertilizer," he says.

On seeding rates, he adds, "We started out with a heavier seeding rate with the plane, around 50 pounds an acre, but every year we've cut it back. Now we put out 100 pounds per three acres."

On brassicas, he uses three to six pounds an acre, and with clover, he plants half the recommended rate.

"We like to mix varieties," he adds, explaining he often mixes 10 pounds of crimson clover to one pound of ball clover. With ryegrass, he'll use as many as four varieties depending on the time of year.


In the fall Tucker starts shipping his heavier stockers to western feedlots, either selling them outright or retaining ownership. The calves will weigh 800 pounds or more, having gained around 500 pounds. From May through August, when the calves are on permanent pasture, Tucker shoots for average daily gains of 1.5 pounds. When they're on winter annuals, they'll gain at least 2.5 pounds a day. After the first of the year he'll ship more, and if he has any heavier cattle left he ships again in May. He buys year-round at local stockyards, anytime he finds a bargain.

Once stockers are gone, along with his own calf crop, Tucker will let those brood cows graze on the left-over winter grazing. He'll supplement them with gin trash and whole cottonseed starting around Thanksgiving and running to mid-February, coinciding with calving season.


While such a diverse forage mix is key to Tucker's plan, he says without rotational grazing, it wouldn't be nearly as effective.

He has 15 small pastures ranging in size from 8 to 20 acres and says his goal is to avoid leaving cattle on these areas more than one week. He believes rotation, especially the rest period, helps with forage growth.

"We graze it lightly and move them. When we strip-till to plant more forage, I don't feel like I've managed it right unless there is grass left," he says.

The whole time stockers are here, Tucker supplements with hay, the gin trash, whole cottonseed and a 50-50 mix of corn gluten and soy hulls. His combination of grazing and supplement leave him with a cost of gain on stockers of around 55 to 60 cents a pound, although part of the cost of the winter annuals is charged to his row crop operation since they do double duty as cover crops.