OSAKA, Japan (AP) -- World leaders attending a Group of 20 summit in Japan that began Friday are clashing over the values that have served for decades as the foundation of their cooperation as they face calls to fend off threats to economic growth.
"A free and open economy is the basis for peace and prosperity," Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe told his counterparts in opening the two-day G-20 meeting that comes as leaders grapple with profound tensions over trade, globalization and the collapsing nuclear deal with Iran.
While groups like the G-20 endeavor to forge consensus on broad policy approaches and geopolitical issues, the rifts between them run both shallow and deep.
Defying Chinese warnings not to bring up the issue of recent protests in Hong Kong, Abe cautioned Chinese President Xi Jinping over Beijing's human rights record.
In a meeting late Thursday, Abe told Xi it is important for "a free and open Hong Kong to prosper under 'one country, two systems' policy," Japanese officials said, referring to the arrangement for the former British colony's autonomy when China took control in 1997.
They said Abe reminded Xi of the importance of guaranteeing freedom, human rights, the "rule of law" and other universal values in raising concern over proposed Hong Kong legislation that would allow some criminal suspects to be extradited for trial in mainland China. The bill, now shelved, drew hundreds of thousands of Hong Kong residents into the streets in protests.
Xi is not the only leader facing a pushback from his Western counterparts.
European Union Council President Donald Tusk blasted Russian President Vladimir Putin for saying in an interview with the Financial Times newspaper that liberalism was "obsolete" and conflicts with the "overwhelming majority" in many countries.
"We are here as Europeans also to firmly and unequivocally defend and promote liberal democracy," Tusk told reporters. "What I find really obsolete are: authoritarianism, personality cults, the rule of oligarchs. Even if sometimes they may seem effective."
Tusk told reporters that such comments suggest a belief that "freedoms are obsolete, that the rule of law is obsolete and that human rights are obsolete."
Putin praised U.S. President Donald Trump for his efforts to try to stop the flow of migrants and drugs from Mexico and said that liberalism "presupposes that nothing needs to be done. That migrants can kill, plunder and rape with impunity because their rights as migrants have to be protected."
Trump has at times found himself at odds with other leaders in such international events, particularly on issues such as Iran, climate change and trade.
A planned meeting between Trump and the Chinese president on Saturday as the G-20 meetings conclude has raised hopes for a detente in the tariffs war between the world's two largest economies.
The two sides have levied billions of dollars' worth of tariffs on each other's imports in a festering dispute over technology and the chronic Chinese trade surplus.
In a meeting with Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro, Trump said he had not promised to hold back on imposing new tariffs on China.
"I think it'll be productive," Trump said of his meeting with Xi. "We'll see what happens tomorrow. It'll be a very exciting day I'm sure," he said. "It's going to come out hopefully well for both countries."
U.S. Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer and Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross accompanied Trump to Osaka, suggesting potential for some movement after 11 rounds of talks stalled in May.
But while prospects for detente in the trade war are in the spotlight, many participating prefer a broader approach to tackling global crises.
"I am deeply concerned over the current global economic situation. The world is paying attention to the direction we, the G-20 leaders, are moving toward," Abe said. "We need to send strong message, which is to support and strengthen a free, fair and indiscriminatory trade system."
A breakthrough is not assured. On Thursday, a Chinese foreign ministry spokesman in Beijing reiterated that China is determined to defend itself against further U.S. moves to penalize it over trade friction. China often has sought to gain support for defending global trade agreements against Trump's "America First" stance in gatherings like the G-20.
Abe has sought to make the Osaka summit a landmark for progress on environmental issues, including climate change, on cooperation in developing new rules for the "digital economy," such as devising fair ways to tax companies like Google and Facebook, and on strengthening precautions against abuse of technologies such as cyber-currencies to fund terrorism and other types of internet-related crimes.
On the rising tensions between Iran and the U.S., U.N. Secretary-General Antonio Guterres said the world can't afford the conflict and it was "essential to deescalate the situation" and avoid confrontation. Iran is soon poised to surpass a key uranium stockpile threshold, threatening the nuclear accord it reached with world powers in 2015.
Iran's moves come after Trump announced in May 2018 that he was pulling the U.S. out of the deal and reimposing economic sanctions on Tehran.
In a letter to the leaders in Osaka, Guterres urged them to take action on equitable and stable reforms to strengthen the global financial safety net and increase the global economy's resilience.
While there are good plans and vision, what's needed are "accelerated actions, not more deliberations," he said.
Fast and equal economic growth should be constructed so that people who live in "the 'rust belts' of the world are not left behind," he said.
The leaders of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa, in a meeting on the G-20 sidelines, called for joint efforts to stabilize international trade and oppose protectionism.
Putin, whose country faces an array of U.S. and EU sanctions, said at the meeting that "international trade has suffered from protectionism, politically motivated restrictions and barriers." Putin also emphasized the need for BRICS nations to take coordinated action to help block sources of funding for terrorist groups.