Texas Wildfires Cover Over 1 Million Acres

Ranchers, Farmers Recover From Devastating Wildfires That Scorch Texas, Oklahoma

A cow's burn injuries, a pile of blackened hay and destroyed machinery show some of the devastation caused by the Smokehouse Creek Fire northwest of Canadian, Texas, just outside the city limits. (Photos by Quentin Shieldknight)

OMAHA (DTN) -- When Miami, Texas, cattle rancher Ryan McCoy realized a wildfire was going to threaten his ranch, he did all he could to prepare for the fire and try to save the ranch.

"You can prepare physically for fires, we've dealt with them before, but this one was way bigger than expected, and there's literally no way to prepare emotionally," McCoy, who is also a volunteer firefighter, told DTN. "This is our livelihood. We've worked for the cattle and our ranches our whole lives. To see it gone so fast is so hard."

The wildfire started Monday, Feb. 26, going from the southwest to the northeast and stayed about a mile from the McCoy ranch border. On Tuesday, Feb. 27, the wind changed, and the 80-mile-long fire started coming toward the McCoys' ranch.

"We did prepare what we could on Tuesday. We used a tractor and plow to plow a 60-foot-wide fire break with hopes it wouldn't jump," he said. "Thankfully, we saved our homes and structures from the fires, but we lost several sections of grass and many cattle from the fire, plus some who had to be euthanized."

McCoy said they expect more cows to be euthanized in the months to come due to smoke damage. They have shipped some cattle to market to salvage some value instead of euthanizing. The infrastructure is also an extreme loss with fences and water tanks needing to be repaired before cattle could be turned back out once grass starts growing again.

"We've watched our life's work gone in the past seven days. The bad part is we've lost collateral and assets. How do you rebuild when you don't have anything?" he said. "Even if we can rebuild our herd, we are looking at seven to eight years of lost income before we can see a gain. It really is devastating."


The small, close-knit ranching community of Miami and other nearby Texas Panhandle towns suffered significant loss. Livestock, buildings, equipment, homes, and pastureland have all been affected.

In Roberts County, people hit by the wildfires are working to recover from the wildfire impact by strongly supporting each other.

"It has hit us hard," Nancy Gill, from Miami, Texas, told DTN last Wednesday. "Right now, we are just trying to assess the damage, continue to fight fires and help the community."

"Everyone is extremely exhausted and trying to wrap their minds around everything," said Gill, whose family ranches in the fire area northeast of Amarillo.

While Gill's family didn't lose any buildings, they have several neighbors who have lost homes, barns, equipment, vehicles, hay, feed, tack and more.

"I don't think people understand the damage, and there are still multiple live fires," she said. "Producers are assessing the damage and trying to navigate where to move cattle. The amount of support we have received statewide has been unbelievable."


Panhandle farmer Tiffany Dowell Lashmet, who also writes in the Our Rural Roots blog for DTN/Progressive Farmer, shared how the fire affected her family. "While the fire was too close for comfort for us, resulting in us having to get cows loaded and out of a pasture surrounded by flames and an evacuation order for our house, all of our land and animals were spared. So many others were not as fortunate."

She added how much help they've been getting. "The phone rang off the hook. People wanted to know how they could help. They offered houses and pasture and hay. Some calls came from the town next door and some from several hours away. Friends offered to come get our kids, our horses, our laundry. Everyone prayed.

"Then trailers began to arrive from all parts of Texas and surrounding states. People brought hay, t-posts and milk replacer. They offered to haul livestock and would not accept a dime for it." (See her complete blog at https://www.dtnpf.com/….)


Another family hit hard by the fires is the Swenhaugen family in Canadian, Texas; they lost two rural homes and most of a swine operation when they were hit last week by what became the largest fire in Texas history, the Smokehouse Creek Fire.

In her first-hand account of what happened, Tatum Swenhaugen described how, beginning Feb. 26, they had tried to save the pigs on their swine operation and how fire forced them to evacuate the farm as well as their home in town in different vehicles. A wheat field ended up saving the lives of her husband (Shane), dad and brother.

"Shane hooked up the trailer, and then my mom got a call that the fire was at the airport which, as the crow flies, was right in line and about two miles from our farm. My dad and brother started heading that way and saw the fire. So, they went to tell Shane there was no time to load anything, meaning we had to leave all of our pigs. Shane left the pickup and trailer on the road at our farm and got in the pickup with my brother, and my dad followed.

"They had to cut through our neighbor's pasture and take lease roads, and by the grace of God, they found a wheatfield, which I had no idea even existed, on Texas State Highway 33 south of Canadian. They drove out to the middle of the wheat field that was greening coming out of dormancy and sat there for three to four hours while everything around them burned."

While they lost so much, the family was thankful for all the help they are getting from others to recover.

"We ended up losing two barns, one birthing building, and there are repairs that need to be made in the outbuildings. We know it will take time to rebuild, but today (March 3), a group of guys from Olton, Texas, down by Lubbock, showed up with big equipment and a semi with a trailer for the debris," said Swenhaugen. "We had two families near town that had lost their show barns, and part of the crew had already stopped and completely cleaned up one place before coming to our place. I have about 40 people at the farm today helping us clean up, and there are at least 25 of them that I don't know.

"Besides the help here cleaning up, we were given 8 tons of feed that will be kept at the feed store in Pampa or at White Deer until we get back on our feet. We also received offers of sows that were already bred and other replacement females to have when we get back up and running. I just cannot believe the outpouring of love we are experiencing," she said.

"I have always believed that the livestock industry is incredible, and especially when things happen, people reach out," said Swenhaugen.

See full story at https://www.dtnpf.com/….

See the March 1 DTN story about the fires at https://www.dtnpf.com/….


Early Wednesday, Feb. 28, Quentin Shieldknight, who farms in the Texas Panhandle near Spearman, Texas, loaded up hay to take much-needed cattle feed to friends of his in Canadian, Texas, who suffered fire damage at their place.

Traveling to his friend's place, Shieldknight got a first-hand look at what the fire left behind. "Areas look like a nuke went off."

Shieldknight could see how close the wildfire came to threatening his own farm this week, where he grows corn, cotton, wheat, soybeans and runs red angus cattle. He lives only 20 miles north of the fires.

"There's enough farm ground in places to protect us, but on the western side of our operation where my house is, there's a whole bunch of rangeland," he told DTN. He's experienced wildfires in the Panhandle before, but this was different. "You try to prepare yourself for the worst, but it never works," he explained. "This fire, at least on the Texas size, I believe is bigger. We lost way more homes in these fires than last time."


The Texas Panhandle was hit hard by several fires, including what has already become now the largest fire in Texas history and close to being one of the largest of all time in the U.S.: the Smokehouse Creek Fire.

Satellite imagery shows the loss of houses and buildings burned in Borger, Canadian, Fritch and Miami. Various media have shown aerial and ground images of burnt homes and farms, as people in some areas have been allowed to return and sort through the ashes. Efforts continue to contain the fires still burning.

The largest and most dangerous of the wildfires that started last week is the Smokehouse Creek Fire, which was in Texas and jumped into Oklahoma. The fire started Feb. 26 in Hutchinson County in Texas. Eventually, the Smokehouse Creek Fire merged with another fire and was in both Texas and Oklahoma. The fire reached 40,000 acres by the morning of Feb. 27. By evening that day, it was 250,000 acres. By the morning of Feb. 28, it was 400,000 acres. Later that day, the Smokehouse Creek Fire was 850,000 acres. By Feb. 29, it was over the 1 million acres mark -- nearly 1,700 square miles. According to the Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food & Forestry in its March 4 Fire Situation Report, the Oklahoma Smokehouse fire (Ellia/Roger Mills Counties) was 31,596 acres with 75% containment there. (https://ag.ok.gov/…)

As of March 4 noon, the Smokehouse Creek Fire was reported at 1,076,638 acres in Texas (https://tfswildfires.com/…) and 15% contained, according to Texas A&M Forest Service. As of March 4, there were eight fires burning in Texas for a total of 1,261,471 acres, with six of those in the Panhandle.

Prior to this fire, AP noted that "The largest fire recorded in state history was the 2006 East Amarillo Complex fire, which burned about 1,400 square miles (3,630 square kilometers) and resulted in 13 deaths."


Currently, two deaths have been blamed on the wildfires, although there still needs to be a more extensive search for victims. The first victim was 83-year-old grandmother Joyce Blankenship of Stinnett, located northeast of Amarillo, Texas. She died in her home.

The second confirmed death was 44-year-old truck driver Cindy Owen of Pampa, Texas. AP reported Owen "was driving in Texas' Hemphill County south of Canadian on Tuesday afternoon (Feb. 27) when she encountered fire or smoke, said Sgt. Chris Ray of the state's Department of Public Safety. She got out of her truck, and flames overtook her. A passerby found Owen and called first responders, who took her to a burn unit in Oklahoma. She died Thursday morning, Ray said."

The fear is that more fires could start or burnt fields could reignite because of the weather.


"It's a complicated week of weather for folks down in the Texas Panhandle this week," said DTN Ag Meteorologist John Baranick on March 4. "Sunday was another day of strong winds. That has calmed down here on Monday as a cold front moved through, but winds are still gusting in the 25- to 30-mph range through the afternoon. That could promote the spread of the fires and make containment more difficult."

As for what's coming up, "It shouldn't be all that breezy for Tuesday, which should help, but the winds increase again on Wednesday as a system out in the West approaches. It does not look nearly as intense as the last couple of events but could gust again in the 25- to 30-mph range Wednesday afternoon," said Baranick.

"That system moves into the region for Thursday and Friday. Models are mixed on the chances for precipitation in the region, but it does look like a solid chance for precipitation to help out, including a chance for snow on Friday evening. That may come with some stronger wind gusts, however, and that would need to be watched as well. But any precipitation down there should help. The rain and snow that fell last Thursday seemed to help out some as well," Baranick said.


On March 1, Texas Gov. Greg Abbott held a press conference and said already as many as 500 structures were destroyed in the Panhandle, and the number could rise.

"When you look at the damages that have occurred here, it's just gone, completely gone, nothing left but ashes on the ground," Abbott said, according to Associated Press.

Homes weren't the only ones damaged or lost to the flames. Livestock owners are dealing with lost and injured cattle, as well as the loss of feed as valuable grass and hay supplies were burned.

Media has reported that Texas Agriculture Commissioner Sid Miller has said there are 3,000 cattle dead, but the number could be as many as 10,000 dead between those that were killed in the fire, had to be euthanized, or will still die from their injuries.

"There'll be cattle that we'll have to euthanize," Miller said. "They'll have burned hooves, burned udders." Miller "predicted the overall impact on the Texas cattle industry and on consumer prices for beef would be minimal," reported AP.


DTN Livestock Market Analyst ShayLe Stewart said Texas has the highest number of beef cows compared to any other state in the U.S.

"There are currently 28,223,000 head of beef cows in the U.S., and as of January 2024, Texas has roughly 4,115,000 head of beef cows in its state alone," she said. Commissioner Miller had said that 85% of Texas cattle are in the Panhandle.

"From a sole market perspective, a death loss toll of 3,000 to 10,000 head won't likely have any immediate effects on the live cattle and feeder cattle markets," Stewart said. "How the fire will affect the market, however, is through higher bred cow prices, higher hay and summer grass prices, and this natural disaster will likely delay any growth in the U.S. beef cow herd for this calendar year."

Stewart, who also is a rancher, added that this fire may mean the end of ranching for some producers and also noted the human and psychological aspects of the wildfires. "I cannot fathom what those producers are currently going through. From the gut-wrenching pain of helplessness to the numbness of stress and fatigue -- those ranchers, their families, their community, and their livestock desperately need our prayers."


On March 1, Miller issued an update on the fires.

"Cattle and crop losses in the Panhandle are significant and infrastructure damage is catastrophic. Even those Texans fortunate enough to save their herd may not have anything to return to but ashes. The path forward as an agricultural operation is unclear without home and belongings. Hemphill County has reported over a thousand missing or dead cattle and several dead horses, goats, and sheep. Numbers in Hemphill County and other impacted areas are expected to rise as the smoldering fire subsides and assessment can be conducted," said Miller.

"Surrounding communities have stepped up to donate hay and feed resources, to support emergency responder needs, and have provided transportation to haul livestock and hay as needed," said Miller.

"The state has temporarily suspended oversize/overweight permitting requirements for vehicles and loads associated with activities necessary to respond to the disaster and has set up livestock supply points. Additionally, the Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) has facilitated a waiver of animal movement documentation for livestock producers because of the 2024 Texas Panhandle wildfire." He added that "Animal owners or producers conducting emergency evacuation of livestock animals to neighboring states should call the TAHC program records department at 512-719-0777, to register animal movement across state lines. Throughout this emergency, resources to gain proper documentation may not be available, and the safety of those involved is the top priority."


From what he saw Wednesday morning of the fire damage, Shieldknight already knew Panhandle livestock producers will need more than the hay he delivered to his friend. "Cattlemen will need medicine and ointments for burns on cows, too, not just hay," Shieldknight added.

He said that ranchers will need to reevaluate the condition of the cattle and horses burned in the fires in the next two weeks. There will also be a need to find feed and evaluate grassland recovery.

"Cattle will possibly need to be pulled out for up to 90 days, then hope we green up quick in the spring," explained Shieldknight. "There are other farmers and the ranchers who are taking some of the cattle now because they can feed them in fields with corn stocks and/or they have extra hay. But that won't last until the spring green up starts in the state."

Since the fire, hay bales are already being trucked from other parts of the country to help livestock producers affected by the fires. (See further in this story how to donate hay to the region.)


While it still needs to be determined how the fires started in the Texas Panhandle, Shieldknight pointed to the volatile weather conditions the area faced. "It's pretty simple as to what happened. We had a drought two years ago and forced the cows out. Last year we had an abundance of rain and grass but few cows. That allowed a lot of pastures to grow, and all it took was one spark of any kind to start it in 80-degree weather and 60-mph winds to spread it," said Shieldknight.

(See more on how communities were dealing with the outbreak of fires at https://www.dtnpf.com/….)


Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service said donations of hay, feed, fencing supplies, cow feed and milk replacer are needed to support livestock owners affected by the wildfires.

The Extension service said it is "establishing Animal Supply Points in several locations in the region to accept the donations. The purpose of the Animal Supply Point is to meet area producers' most critical needs such as providing feed for cattle while they assess their individual operation's other needs."

"These donations will go directly to those who need them as soon as possible," said Monty Dozier, AgriLife Extension Disaster Assessment Recovery, DAR, program director, Bryan-College Station. "Texans are known for their generosity and deep values of Texas agriculture during times of need. This is certainly a situation where our neighbors and friends are needing assistance after these fires have threatened their livelihoods."

See more on how to donate hay, feed or fencing materials, or have equipment to help haul hay, go to: https://agrilifetoday.tamu.edu/….


Just prior to the start of the fires, the Texas Farm Bureau had warned how short hay supplies already were in Texas. On Feb. 22, Farm Bureau's Field Editor Shelby Shank wrote a blog note that said AgriLife Extension Economist David Anderson had noted on Dec. 1, 2023, that hay stocks were the lowest on record behind 2022 and 2021.

"Hay yields averaged 1.87 tons per acre in Texas last year compared to 1.56 tons per acre in 2022. Producers had yielded 1.95 tons per acre on average since 2012. Some ranchers are shipping in hay and alfalfa from out of state due to low availability locally. Prices aren't as high as they were in 2022, but they remain above average, indicating tighter supplies and higher input costs," wrote Shank. "The national price for round bales is $102, but grass hay bales in Texas have been selling for $100-$140 or $200-$280 per ton based on quality." The blog added Anderson saying, "There are fewer cows to feed, but the costs to keep herds fed through winter after poor hay and grazing production has translated into tough decisions for some producers." (https://texasfarmbureau.org/…)


Last Thursday while in Texas, President Joe Biden talked about what the federal government is doing to help.

"From the start, I've directed my team to do everything possible to help the people in the communities threatened by the fires. In response to specific requests made by the states, we already have 500 federal personnel here working on fire suppression, and that includes the deployment of 100 federal firefighters and more on the way," said Biden. He added there also have been fire engines, air tankers, small planes, and helicopters sent to help.

He added that FEMA has already said Texas and Oklahoma will be reimbursed "for the cost of keeping folks safe." Biden expressed gratefulness to the "brave first responders risking their lives to save others and we urge folks to listen to the warnings from local officials."

Biden stressed, "When disaster strikes, there is no red state or blue state ... there's just communities looking for help."

Last week, Texas Gov. Abbott issued a disaster declaration for 60 counties in his state.


As fires continued to spread through the High Plains last week, the Smokehouse Creek fire isn't the only one firefighters are attempting to control.

In Texas, some of the other larger fires, as of March 4, included Windy Deuce fire in Moore County, which is now at 144,206 acres and 55% contained; the Grape Vine Creek fire in Gray County was 34,882 acres and 60% contained.

The Oklahoma government has noted houses and numerous additional structures have been lost in various counties to fires.

In its March 4 Fire Situation Report, https://ag.ok.gov/…, the Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food & Forestry provided its list of fires within and outside of the Oklahoma Forestry Services Protection area and how much they were contained. Besides the Smokehouse Road Fire (Texas/Oklahoma), it noted, as of March 4, the other largest fires were the Slapout Fire in Beaver County at 26,048 acres and 80% containment; the Catesby Fire in Ellis County with 90,920 acres and 42% contained.


While the wildfires already have been stunning in their impact -- the Smokehouse Creek Fire within three days consumed more acres than all the wildfires together burned in Texas in 2023. DTN's Baranick said the amazing thing about the weather situation is that it's not at all perfect for producing wildfires.

"Wildfires feed on a bunch of dead vegetation over dry soils with dry atmospheric conditions and strong winds to pump in oxygen and help the fire move," he said. "Only the atmospheric components have been observed (last) week. But the background conditions we typically look for that would increase fire risks have not."

Baranick said the northern Texas Panhandle has had more precipitation this winter than normal. Amarillo, which is about 50 miles southwest of the large Smokehouse Creek fire, received 1.77 inches of rain in December, 1.02 inches of rain in January, and 0.52 inch in February, for a total of 3.31 inches for the season.

"Typically, Amarillo only receives 1.79 inches of rain over the entire winter season, so Amarillo has received twice as much rainfall as normal," Baranick said. "That has knocked down the drought in the region, and there is currently none on the U.S. Drought Monitor for this part of the country," he said.

"In fact, with the remaining drought listed on the map for the Central and Southern Plains, all of it is labeled with a large "L" -- meaning it is long-term drought and rainfall deficits, rather than short-term drought that would increase wildfire risks."

He went on. "Now, the seasonal total of 3.31 inches is not all that heavy anyway, so let's take a look at the soil moisture. Coincidentally, because of the heavier rain, soil moisture is above normal for this time of year. But that doesn't mean that soils are not dry. Actual soil moisture in the region is about half of what it is in the Midwest and closer to a third of the water available in the Southeast states, so they are still dry compared to more humid climates," Baranick said.

"But it was the overall weather conditions that caused the most important reason the fires were able to grow so quickly. It has been very warm in the Texas Panhandle for the last week, with high temperatures hitting 80 degrees Fahrenheit or more four times in the last 10 days (prior to the fires). That would spur plant growth and a reduction in soil moisture. Add to it that temperatures on Monday, Feb. 26, hit a high of 82 F while the relative humidity fell below 20% and winds gusted in the 45-60 mph range during the middle of the day, and that allowed the fire to get started.

"Strong winds continued through Tuesday evening in the same general range before quieting down Monday night. A sharp dryline was the cause of the initial conditions. Winds flowing down off the southern Rockies and through West Texas and much of the Plains on Feb. 26 caused the winds to increase and the humidity to fall through the afternoon of Feb. 27. A strong cold front moved through on the evening of Feb. 27, which eventually got the winds to calm down. West Texas is usually a windy place when these dryline events happen, and are a frequent cause of concern for wildfires," he said.

"But the extent of the ones currently going on, and the Smokehouse Creek fire in particular, are alarming. Smaller fires would make more sense, given the more unfavorable background conditions. But that just goes to show that when weather conditions for creating/sustaining/growing wildfires occur, they shouldn't be ignored."



Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service has set up a website at https://agrilifetoday.tamu.edu/… to help provide information on donating hay, feed or fencing materials or even on how to make monetary contributions. "AgriLife Extension will provide more educational information as it becomes available on the losses and needs of those affected by the wildfires," the site said.

See more tips on how to protect yourself in case of wildfires, as well as homes, barns, agriculture production facilities, crops and livestock by going to https://texashelp.tamu.edu/….


Texas & Southwestern Cattle Raisers Association is urging donors to give to the TSCRA Disaster Relief Fund amid widespread wildfires affecting the Texas Panhandle and Western Oklahoma. Donations will go on to aid victims of the ongoing natural disasters, the organization said. The TSCRA Disaster Relief Fund is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit that provides support for cattle raisers in Texas and Oklahoma who are victims of a natural disaster. All contributions to the TSCRA Disaster Relief Fund are tax deductible. See https://tscra.org/….


The State of Texas Agriculture Relief (STAR) Fund is accepting donations to help farmers and ranchers recover from fire losses in the Panhandle. According to the website, the fund "was created solely with monetary donations from private individuals and entities to fund disaster recovery efforts. STAR Fund money may be used to assist farmers, ranchers and agribusiness owners in rebuilding fences, restoring operations and paying for other agricultural disaster relief. If you'd like to help folks impacted by the wildfires, floods or tornadoes, consider making a donation to the STAR Fund. The Program is designed to provide relief to Texas agricultural entities adversely impacted by natural disasters." For those wishing to receive funds, "Funds are not intended to compensate individuals or businesses for losses incurred, but to assist agriculture producers in cost-sharing some of the unexpected expenses associated with the repair or replacement of items necessary for their agricultural operation. See the application for more information. Verification of the damage caused by the disaster is required prior to TDA disbursing funds. Please include any pictures, certifications or other documentation of the damage." See more on eligibility to receive funds at https://www.texasagriculture.gov/….


"Catastrophic wildfires have scorched over 1 million acres in the Texas Panhandle. Homes, barns, fences and livestock have been lost. In an effort to help farmers and ranchers who have been affected by this event, Texas Farm Bureau developed the Texas Panhandle Wildfire Relief Fund. This program will collect and distribute monetary contributions only," noted the Farm Bureau site. See https://texasfarmbureau.org/… or contact Chris Daughtery at cdaughtery@txfb.org or 254-399-5074 with donation questions.


USDA's Farm Service Agency is offering disaster assistance and low-interest loan programs to assist agricultural producers in their recovery efforts. See https://www.fsa.usda.gov/….


The Texas Animal Health Commission (TAHC) works with local, state, federal, non-governmental, and sector partners to help plan for, respond to, and recover from natural disasters that affect livestock and companion and service animals. On its site are resources to help with the listing of animal supply points, the Texas Department of Agriculture hay hotline to help locate or donate hay and forage, phone numbers to contact for lost and found animals, carcass disposal assistance, and various government programs available to help. See https://www.tahc.texas.gov/….


The Canadian AH&N Ranch Supply in Canadian, Texas, is a fire relief supply point. Donations can be mailed to Fire Relief Fund, P.O. Box 300, Canadian, TX 79014, given in person at Canadian AH&N, or by telephone (806) 282-9534. For more information, people are encouraged to phone. People who wished to donate hay were encouraged to call the number first, find out where are people who need the hay, and then it could be delivered more efficiently to cattle owners.



USDA Informational Meetings for Ranchers and Livestock Producers Affected by Wildfires:

For Whom: Ranchers, livestock producers, and landowners that have experienced loss of forage, agricultural improvements infrastructure, and livestock due to the recent wildfires.

Purpose: NRCS and FSA employees will present options for recovery including, information on the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP), the Livestock Indemnity Program (LIP), and the Emergency Assistance Livestock Program (ELAP), as well as other disaster recovery options available to farmers and ranchers. Additionally, how to properly document wildfire losses will be covered.

Times and Locations:


Tuesday, March 5, at 1:30 p.m.

Hemphill County Exhibition Center -- Sage Room

10865 Exhibition Lane Rd

Canadian, Tx 79014


Wednesday, March 6, at 1:30 p.m.

Amarillo National Bank of Borger -- Rig Room on 3rd floor

301 W 6th St

Borger, TX 79007

For more information, contact your local USDA Service Center:

Carson: (806) 537-3504

Gray: (806) 665-1751

Hansford: (806) 659-2330

Hutchinson: (806) 878-2241

Hemphill: (806) 323-6752

Roberts: (806) 868-3531

Wheeler: (806) 826-3565

Elaine Shein can be reached at elaine.shein@dtn.com

Follow her on X, formerly known as Twitter, @elaineshein

Mary Kennedy can be reached at mary.kennedy@dtn.com

Follow her on X, formerly known as Twitter, @MaryCKenn

Jennifer Carrico can be reached at jennifer.carrico@dtn.com

Follow her on X, formerly known as Twitter, @JennCattleGal